- python 的发展
…可惜为了看RNG v.s. C9比赛，本来八点半就应该写的，拖了一个小时，很亏。
参考 https://ir.lib.vntu.edu.ua/bitstream/handle/123456789/10471/461.pdf?sequence=3 ：
1）python是1980s（20世纪80年代）开始构想的，1989年被Guido van Rossum开发出来，作为ABC编程语言的继承者。
The history of the Python programming language dates back to the late 1980s [1, 27]. Python was
conceived in the late 1980s and its implementation was started in December 1989 by Guido van Rossum at
CWI in the Netherlands as a successor to the ABC programming language capable of exception handling and
interfacing with the Amoeba operating system.
Van Rossum is Python’s principal author, and his continuing central role in deciding the direction of Python is reflected in the title given to him by the Python community.
3）python是通用型，高级编程语言。强调的是 code readability，它的句法使得程序员能够比在C++或者java下面编写更少的代码行数。
Python is a widely used general-purpose, high-level programming language. Its design philosophy emphasizes code readability, and its syntax allows programmers to express concepts in fewer lines of code than would be possible in languages such as C++ or Java. The language provides constructs intended to enable clear programs on both a small and large scale
[only before noun] 多用途的；多功能的
having a wide range of different uses
a general-purpose farm vehicle
(linguistics 语言) 句法；句法规则
the way that words and phrases are put together to form sentences in a language; the rules of grammar for this
@1 Python supports multiple programming paradigms： 包括 object-oriented, imperative and functional programming or procedural styles aspect-oriented programming
Many other paradigms are supported using extensions, including design by contract and logic programming. 厉害，这里说的是python的扩展性很强。
@2 It features a dynamic type system and automatic memory management and has a large and comprehensive standard library 动态类型系统，自动内存管理，大量的库
Python uses dynamic typing and a combination of reference counting and a cycle-detecting garbage collector for memory management.
Python has a large standard library, commonly cited as one of Python’s greatest strengths [3, 178], providing tools suited to many tasks 被称作是最大的优点。
The community of Python developers has also contributed over 72,000 software modules (as of January 2016) to the Python Package Index (called PyPI), the official repository of third-party libraries for Python.
@3 Python interpreters are available for installation on many operating systems, allowing Python code execution on a wide variety of systems 各个操作系统都有可用的python解释器
clean syntax (for allocation of blocks to use derogations); 干净的句法
tolerance programs (that is characteristic of most interpreted languages);
normal distribution has a lot of useful modules (including the module for developing GUI); 很多库
the use Python in interactive mode (very useful for experimentation and solve simple problems);
normal distribution is simple but at the same time quite powerful development environment, which is
called IDLE and what is written in Python; 简单但是powerful
suitable for solving mathematical problems (a means of working with complex numbers, can operate
with integers of arbitrary size, a dialog can be used as a powerful calculator). 对解决数学问题很有用
a dialog can be used as a powerful calculator 这里指的是那个shell吧，里面确实可以当计算器。
6）python 的弱点 :
@1 relatively low rate of implementation， 我觉得应该是编译比较慢
However, Python still has some disadvantages. Python like many other interpreted languages that do
not apply, for example, JIT-compilers have a common drawback – the relatively low rate of program
implementation. In addition, the lack of static typing and some other reasons do not allow you to implement a Python function overloading mechanism at compile time.
这个some other reasons是真的秀。
Monty Python references in example code [4, 161]. For example, the metasyntactic variables often
used in Python literature are spam and eggs, instead of the traditional foo and bar. As well as this, the official
Python documentation often contains various obscure Monty Python references.
Since 2003, Python has consistently ranked in the top ten most popular programming languages as measured by the TIOBE Programming Community Index. As of January 2016, it is in the fifth position. It was ranked as Programming Language of the Year for the year 2007
参考 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_Python ：
Python 2.0 was released on October 16, 2000, with many major new features, including a cycle-detecting garbage collector (in addition to reference counting) for memory management and support for Unicode. However, the most important change was to the development process itself, with a shift to a more transparent and community-backed process.
Python 3.0, a major, backwards-incompatible release, was released on December 3, 2008 after a long period of testing. Many of its major features have also been backported to the backwards-compatible Python 2.6 and 2.7.
从上面来看，python2.0成功的原因在于它转向了 more transparent and community-backed（社区支持） process 的开发。社区开发是真的强。
python2.0 2000年就搞出来了，3.0 在2008年也出来了，很厉害。
What do the alphabet and the programming language Python have in common? Right, both start with ABC. If we are talking about ABC in the Python context, it’s clear that the programming language ABC is meant. ABC is a general-purpose programming language and programming environment, which had been developed in the Netherlands, Amsterdam, at the CWI (Centrum Wiskunde & Informatica). The greatest achievement of ABC was to influence the design of Python.
So, what about the name “Python”: Most people think about snakes, and even the logo depicts two snakes, but the origin of the name has its root in British humour. Guido van Rossum, the creator of Python, wrote in 1996 about the origin of the name of his programming language1: “Over six years ago, in December 1989, I was looking for a ‘hobby’ programming project that would keep me occupied during the week around Christmas. My office … would be closed, but I had a home computer, and not much else on my hands. I decided to write an interpreter for the new scripting language I had been thinking about lately: a descendant of ABC that would appeal to Unix/C hackers. I chose Python as a working title for the project, being in a slightly irreverent mood (and a big fan of Monty Python’s Flying Circus).”
python的设计原则：（Zen是 禅 的意思）
The emphasis in Python 3 had been on the removal of duplicate programming constructs and modules, thus fulfilling or coming close to fulfilling the 13th law of the Zen of Python: “There should be one – and preferably only one – obvious way to do it.”
2）Views and iterators instead of lists
Python version 1.0 was released in January 1994. The major new features included in this release were the functional programming tools lambda, map, filter and reduce, which Guido Van Rossum never liked.
Six and a half years later in October 2000, Python 2.0 was introduced. This release included list comprehensions, a full garbage collector and it was supporting unicode.
Python flourished for another 8 years in the versions 2.x before the next major release as Python 3.0 (also known as “Python 3000” and “Py3K”) was released. Python 3 is not backwards compatible with Python 2.x. The emphasis in Python 3 had been on the removal of duplicate programming constructs and modules, thus fulfilling or coming close to fulfilling the 13th law of the Zen of Python: “There should be one – and preferably only one – obvious way to do it.”
Some changes in Python 3.0:
# Print is now a function
# Views and iterators instead of lists
# The rules for ordering comparisons have been simplified. E.g. a heterogeneous list cannot be sorted, because all the elements of a list must be comparable to each other.
# There is only one integer type left, i.e. int. long is int as well.
# The division of two integers returns a float instead of an integer. “//” can be used to have the “old” behaviour.
# Text Vs. Data Instead Of Unicode Vs. 8-bit
On the origins of Python, Van Rossum wrote in 1996:
…In December 1989, I was looking for a “hobby” programming project that would keep me occupied during the week around Christmas. My office … would be closed, but I had a home computer, and not much else on my hands. I decided to write an interpreter for the new scripting language I had been thinking about lately: a descendant of ABC that would appeal to Unix/C hackers. I chose Python as a working title for the project, being in a slightly irreverent mood (and a big fan of Monty Python’s Flying Circus).
— Guido van Rossum
听作者这个话说的是：My office … would be closed, but I had a home computer, and not much else on my hands.
“Life is short, you need python.”
 History of Python. https://ir.lib.vntu.edu.ua/bitstream/handle/123456789/10471/461.pdf?sequence=3
 The History of Python. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ualxVE4YOjc
 History of Python. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_Python
 History of Python. https://www.python-course.eu/python3_history_and_philosophy.php
 Python (programming language) https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Python_(programming_language)
 Python发展起源及基础知识. https://www.cnblogs.com/xincai/archive/2017/06/21/7058551.html
 Python简史. https://www.cnblogs.com/vamei/archive/2013/02/06/2892628.html
 Python起源与发展. https://www.cnblogs.com/heqiuyong/p/8469357.html